A CNC lathe machine comprises of various components such as a headstock, carriage, bed and a tailstock . They have broad and stable bearing surfaces and work with precision. A stable machine manufactures parts that meet requirements for both repeatability and tolerance.
- Headstock has many parts to it and many functional pieces of the machine are in it such as main spindle, the change gears and the speed change mechanism. It has a strong design to cut with a variety of force. If it were light then it would create problems with vibration that would distort the finished piece and destroy its quality.
- Bed is the base of a headstock and allows connection to it. The bed helps set the carriage and the tailstock in perfect parallel alignment to the spindle axis. A part called a way holds the carriage and the tailstock onto the track. The carriage travels along the machine using a rack and pinion system. It also includes a leadscrew that keeps it on an accurate pitch or it has a feedscrew.
- Feed or Leadscrew helps with gears of the CNC lathe machine. The feedscrew is the drive shaft for the machine and works with the gears to drive the mechanism of the courage. The feedscrew is also driven by either the quick change gear box or the change gears. There are other gears that allow for the correct ratio so that the parts that are made are accurate. The feedscrew and leadscrew work together with the spindle to make the correct amount of screw threads on the work that you are doing.
- Carriage has a tool bit that turns either in a perpendicular or longitudinal direction depending on how the operator controls it. The operator will set this on a CNC machine where it would use a handwheel on the older machines. The handwheels can be used to manually move the carriage or to automate it. Also, the handwheels have calibrations on them for ease of use.
- Cross slide is a small part that is placed on top of the carriage. It has a main spindle axis and a leadscrew. The leadscrew moves along the main spindle axis in a perpendicular fashion so that it can perform facing operations; only one direction can be done at a time. There will be a computer component where you can program filter the CAD or CAM program to do exactly what you want to do. Although these machines seem complicated, they are not as difficult once you start to use it.